References & Resources

Friends for Youth Mentoring Institute. Evidenced-Based Activities to Build Mentoring Relationships, November 2011

Karcher, M.J. (2008). "The Study of Mentoring in the Learning Environment (SMILE)", Prevention Science (June 2008), p. 99-113

Karcher, M.J., Nakkula, M.J. (Eds). "Play, Talk, Learn: Promising Practices in Youth Mentoring", New Directions for Youth Development, Summer 2010

Karcher, M.J., Nakkula, M.J., Harris, J. "Developmental Match Characteristics: Correspondence between Mentors’ and Mentees’ Assessments of Relationship Quality", The Journal of Primary Prevention, Vol. 26, No. 2, March 2005

Kremer, S. (2005). Friends for Youth’s Mentoring Journal,

Laird, H. (2003). Friends for Youth’s Academic Activity Guide,

Langhout, R.D., Rhodes, J.E., Osborne, L. (2004). "An Exploratory Study of Youth Mentoring in an Urban Context: Adolescents’ Perceptions of Relationship Styles", Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, p. 293-306

"Mentoring for Meaningful Results: Asset Building Tips, Tools, and Activities for Youth and Adults", Minneapolis, Search Institute

Rhodes, J., Liang, B., Spencer, R. First Do No Harm: Ethical Principles for Youth Mentoring Relationships, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2009, Vol. 40, No. 5, 452–458. © 2009 American Psychological Association


  1. Karcher & Nakkula, 2010, New Directions for Youth Development, p.14
  2. Karcher, Nakkula, Harris, 2005, New Directions for Youth Development p. 14
  3. Rhodes, J., Spencer, R., Keller, T., Liang, B., Noam, G., 2006, "A Model for the Influence of Mentoring Relationships on Youth Development", Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 692-694, 698-699
  4. Clary, E.G., Snyder, M., Ridge, R.D., Copeland, J., Stukas, A.A., Haugen, J., et al.,1998, "Understanding and Assessing the Motivations of Volunteers: A Functional Approach", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, p. 1516-1530
  5. Karcher & Nakkula, 2010, New Directions for Youth Development